Apple Cider Vinegar in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects more than 530 million people worldwide. Disease hallmarks include high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), overproduction of sugar from the liver, and insulin resistance. Uncontrolled blood sugar levels in T2D can lead to complications of the eyes, kidney, brain, and heart. Obesity affects 770 million adults worldwide, is marked by excess body fat, and can lead to a number of chronic conditions including sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, osteoarthritis (due to pressure on the joints), and cancer.

Apple cider vinegar (ACV) made from fermented apple juice, contains several phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds are produced within plants mostly as a defence response, and have proven benefits in humans as an anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, and antioxidant agents.  AVC has been proven to reduce inflammation, normalize blood lipids and increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes. 

Clinical Evidence

Several studies have investigated the effect of ACV in T2D and obesity. One study showed that two teaspoons of vinegar taken with meals (composed of complex carbohydrates) significantly decreased blood sugar levels up to 2-hours post meal by 20% compared to placebo in subjects with or without T2D. 

Another study of 175 obese individuals showed taking either 15 or 30 ml of ACV significantly decreased body weight, waist circumference, visceral fat, and blood lipids over those receiving placebo. Greater effects were observed with 30 ml of ACV instead of 15 ml. 

Evidence from these and other studies show that apple cider vinegar may be used as part of a T2D and/or obesity management plan. 


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